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Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energieträger

  • Text
  • Substitutionsfaktoren
  • Climate
  • Biomasse
  • Emissionsfaktoren
  • Erneuerbarer
  • Stromerzeugung
  • Emissionen
  • Emissionsbilanz
  • Energien
  • Tabelle
Aktualisierte Fassung aufbauend auf den vorherigen Veröffentlichungen der „Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energieträger“ (UBA, Memmler, Lauf, Wolf, & Schneider, 2016; UBA, et al., 2014; UBA, et al., 2013; UBA, et al., 2009)

Climate Change:

Climate Change: Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energien Executive Summary For several years the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has been compiling a balance of emissions avoided by renewable energy sources - primarily on behalf of the former Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). In 2014 the work was taken over by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) in line with the restructuring of responsibilities for energy policy within the Federal government. The results of the net balance of avoided emissions is made available within the publication “Renewable Energy Sources in Figures - National and international developments” (BMWi, 2018), which is presented annually in September. Additionally a first estimation of the balance for the previous year is made at February / March and at the end of the year the results are finally updated. Latest data and the above mentioned publication can be downloaded from the webpage of UBA 3 and BMWi 4 . Furthermore the results are considered in the national Monitoring Report (BMWi, 2018b). During the last years, the net balance of emissions avoided by renewable energy sources has been continuously improved. The current edition represents a revised version of the last report, published under the title „Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energieträger - Bestimmung der vermiedenen Emissionen im Jahr 2016” (CLIMATE CHANGE 23/2017). It contains updated data for the electricity, heat and transport sector based on the latest renewable energy statistics. Basis and general framework for calculations is the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council of 23 April 2009 “on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources”. Additionally, available research is fed into the calculations. Examples include the use of representative emission factors derived from a BMU-financed research project on „Updating of Eco-balances for greenhouse gases and air pollutants from renewable energy sources” (Rausch & Fritsche, 2012). Data gaps on biofuel production pathways have been filled through a study on the “Update of the input data and emissions balances of selected biofuel resource pathways” of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (IFEU, 2016). Furthermore the recent study on “CO 2-reductions in the electricity sector through the use of renewable energies in 2012 and 2013” Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI, 2016) was implemented. Substitution and emission factors used in the report are derived from a number of sources including the UBA database for national emissions reporting (Central System of Emissions), as well as several life-cycle databases like the Global Emissions Model for integrated Systems (GEMIS). The reported results show that the expansion of renewable energies substantially contributes to the achievement of national climate goals in Germany. In all consumption sectors (i.e. power, heat and transport) fossil fuels are being replaced by renewable energies, thereby permanently avoiding energy related greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants. Nevertheless, the results also illustrate that different sectors and renewable energy technologies show very different reduction factors for the investigated greenhouse gases and air pollutants, which is of key importance in order to derive specific and efficient climate change mitigation actions. Considering all relevant upstream chains and the relevant greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, the net balance of emissions avoided resulted in 177 Mio. t CO 2 equivalents (CO 2- 3 https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/topics/climate-energy/renewable-energies/renewable-energies-the-figures 4 http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/EE/Navigation/DE/Service/Erneuerbare_Energien_in_Zahlen/erneuerbare_energien_in_zahlen.html 13

Climate Change: Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energien eq.) in 2017. Of this total amount, the power sector accounts for 135 Mio. t CO 2-eq. (with 115 Mio. t being entitled for remuneration under the Renewable Energy Sources Act). In the heat and transport sector avoided emissions amounted to 35 Mio. t and 7 Mio. t CO 2-eq. respectively. It can be generally stated that for the results in the power and heat sector the type of fossil fuel substituted by renewable energy sources is of greatest importance for the amount of emissions reduced. For biofuels on the other hand, type and origin of the utilized raw materials determine the potential of emission reductions. Additionally, in the case of bio-energies (with the exception of biogenic waste and residues) land use changes through the cultivation of energy plants have to be considered as a major source of potential emissions. A summarizing set of results for the different sectors is available in the results sections of this report. It is followed by a detailed and transparent presentation of all investigated renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heat and transport sectors. 14

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