vor 5 Jahren

Global Status Report 2016 - Key Findings

  • Text
  • Renewable
  • Capacity
  • Solar
  • Countries
  • Global
  • Policies
  • Renewables
  • Heating
  • Hydropower
  • Efficiency
Der Renewables 2016 Global Status Report zeigt, dass erneuerbare Energien sich heute als wettbewerbsfähige und wichtige Energiequellen in vielen Ländern der Welt etabliert haben. 2015 war ein Rekordjahr für die Installation von erneuerbaren Energieanlagen. Der Zubau erneuerbarer Energiekapazität für die Stromproduktion verzeichnete mit 147 Gigawatt (GW) den größten Anstieg seiner Geschichte. Auch die Nutzung moderner Erneuerbarer für Wärmeerzeugung und im Verkehrssektor nahm zu. Dezentrale erneuerbare Energien verbreiten sich rapide und helfen somit die Lücke zwischen den„ Energiereichen“ und „Energiearmen“ zu schließen...... Herausgeber: Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21. Century (REN21), Juni 2016


INVESTMENT FLOWS A new record high; developing and emerging countries lead Global new investment in renewable power and fuels climbed to a record USD 285.9 billion in 2015 (not including hydropower projects >50 MW i ). This represents a rise of 5% compared to 2014 and exceeds the previous record (USD 278.5 billion) achieved in 2011. Including investments in hydropower projects larger than 50 MW, total new investment during 2015 in renewable power and fuels (not including renewable heating and cooling) was at least USD 328.9 billion. In 2015, global investment in new renewable power capacity, at USD 265.8 billion ii , was more than double the USD 130 billion allocated to new coal- and natural gas-fired power generation capacity. This difference in favour of renewables is the largest witnessed to date. If hydropower projects larger than 50 MW are considered, the spread between renewables and fossil fuel investment in new power capacity is even greater. For the first time in history, total investment in renewable power and fuels in developing countries in 2015 exceeded that in developed economies. The developing world, including China, India and Brazil, committed a total of USD 156 billion (up 19% compared to 2014). China played a dominant role, increasing its investment by 17% to USD 102.9 billion, accounting for 36% of the global total. Renewable energy investment also increased significantly in India, South Africa, Mexico and Chile. Other developing countries investing more than USD 500 million in renewables in 2015 included Morocco, Uruguay, the Philippines, Pakistan and Honduras. By contrast, renewable energy investment in developed countries as a group declined by 8% in 2015, to USD 130 billion. The most significant decrease was seen in Europe (down 21% to USD 48.8 billion), despite the region’s record year of financing for offshore wind power (USD 17 billion, up 11% from 2014). In the United States, renewable energy investment (dominated largely by solar power) increased by 19% to USD 44.1 billion, the country’s largest increase in dollar terms since 2011. Investment in renewable energy has been weighted increasingly towards wind and solar power. Solar power was again the leading sector by far in terms of money committed during 2015, accounting for USD 161 billion (up 12% over 2014), or more than 56% of total new investment in renewable power and fuels. Wind power followed with USD 109.6 billion, or 38.3% of the total (up 4%). All technologies except solar and wind power saw investment decline relative to 2014: investment in biomass and waste-to-energy fell by 42% to USD 6 billion, small-scale hydropower fell by 29% to USD 3.9 billion, biofuels fell by 35% to USD 3.1 billion, geothermal energy fell by 23% to USD 2 billion, and ocean energy fell by 42% to USD 215 million. ENERGY EFFICIENCY Increased awareness, investment, policies and targets Emphasis on activities to improve energy efficiency in all sectors increased during 2015 at all levels of government, as well as in the private sector. There is growing recognition worldwide that energy efficiency can play a key role in reducing energy-related emissions and that it can provide multiple economy-wide benefits – such as enhanced energy security, reduced fuel poverty and improved public health. By the end of 2015, at least 146 countries had enacted some kind of energy efficiency policy, and at least 128 countries had one or more energy efficiency targets (not considering INDCs). Some policies attempt to harness the synergy between energy efficiency and renewable energy, as efficiency measures have the potential to enable a more rapid increase in renewable energy's share of global energy consumption. Driven by structural changes and energy efficiency improvements among other factors, global primary energy intensity declined between 1990 and 2014 at an average annual rate of 1.5%, falling by more than 30% overall during this period. However, the global economy has expanded even more, and energy demand has risen steadily. In the transport and industrial sectors, global energy intensity has declined over the past few decades. In the buildings sector, the relatively small but growing market for more-efficient building envelopes and materials is resulting in improved building energy performance, particularly in developed countries. Total energy demand for a number of appliance and equipment categories (e.g., computers, fans, motors) continues to rise, despite improvements in efficiency, due largely to a rapid increase in the use of electricity-consuming products. Energy efficiency improvements reflect, in part, increasing investments. In 2013, global investment in energy efficiency totalled an estimated USD 130 billion, including the enduser categories of buildings, transport and industry as well as associated costs such as labour and taxes (but not fuel switching). In September 2015, 70 financial institutions from more than 20 countries – including national, regional and global banks – committed to increasing financing for energy efficiency investments. Advancements also reflect increased use of support policies and programmes. A growing number of countries is setting energy efficiency targets and defining roadmaps; adopting new policies and updating existing legislation to advance energy efficiency; and expanding the coverage of standards and labelling programmes, with developing and emerging countries playing an increasing role in these trends. Several developed countries also have introduced new financial incentives to channel additional funding towards energy efficiency measures. i Investment data do not include hydropower projects >50 MW, except where specified. ii This number is for renewable power asset finance and small-scale projects. It differs from the overall total for renewable energy investment (USD 285.9 billion) provided elsewhere in the report because it excludes biofuels and some types of non-capacity investment, such as equity-raising on public markets and development R&D. In addition, it does not include investment in hydropower projects >50 MW. 12

TOP FIVE COUNTRIES Annual investment / net capacity additions / biofuel production in 2015 1 2 3 4 5 Investment in renewable power and fuels (not including hydro > 50 MW) China United States Japan United Kingdom India Investment in renewable power and fuels per unit GDP 1 Mauritania Honduras Uruguay Morocco Jamaica Geothermal power capacity Turkey United States Mexico Kenya Germany/Japan Hydropower capacity China Brazil Turkey India Vietnam Solar PV capacity China Japan United States United Kingdom India Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) capacity 2 Morocco South Africa United States – – Wind power capacity China United States Germany Brazil India Solar water heating capacity China Turkey Brazil India United States Biodiesel production United States Brazil Germany Argentina France Fuel ethanol production United States Brazil China Canada Thailand Total capacity or generation as of end-2015 POWER 1 2 3 4 5 Renewable power (incl. hydro) China United States Brazil Germany Canada Renewable power (not incl. hydro) China United States Germany Japan India Renewable power capacity per capita (among top 20, not including hydro 3 ) Denmark Germany Sweden Spain Portugal Biopower generation United States China Germany Brazil Japan HEAT Geothermal power capacity United States Philippines Indonesia Mexico New Zealand Hydropower capacity 4 China Brazil United States Canada Russia Hydropower generation 4 China Brazil Canada United States Russia CSP capacity Spain United States India Morocco South Africa Solar PV capacity China Germany Japan United States Italy Solar PV capacity per capita Germany Italy Belgium Japan Greece Wind power capacity China United States Germany India Spain Wind power capacity per capita Denmark Sweden Germany Ireland Spain Solar water heating collector capacity 5 China United States Germany Turkey Brazil Solar water heating collector capacity per capita 5 Austria Cyprus Israel Barbados Greece Geothermal heat capacity 6 China Turkey Japan Iceland India Geothermal heat capacity per capita 6 Iceland New Zealand Hungary Turkey Japan 1 Countries considered include only those covered by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF); GDP (at purchasers’ prices) data for 2014 from World Bank. BNEF data include the following: all biomass, geothermal and wind generation projects of more than 1 MW; all hydropower projects of between 1 and 50 MW; all solar power projects, with those less than 1 MW estimated separately and referred to as small-scale projects or small distributed capacity; all ocean energy projects; and all biofuel projects with an annual production capacity of 1 million litres or more. Small-scale capacity data used to help calculate investment per unit of GDP cover only those countries investing USD 200 million or more. 2 Only three countries brought concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) plants online in 2015, which is why no countries are listed in places 4 and 5. 3 Per capita renewable power capacity ranking considers only those countries that place among the top 20 worldwide for total installed renewable power capacity, not including hydropower. Several other countries including Austria, Finland, Ireland and New Zealand also have high per capita levels of non-hydro renewable power capacity, with Iceland likely the leader among all countries. Population data are for 2014 and are from the World Bank. 4 Country rankings for hydropower capacity and generation differ because some countries rely on hydropower for baseload supply whereas others use it more to follow the electric load and to match peaks in demand. 5 Solar water heating collector rankings for total capacity and per capita are for year-end 2014 and are based on capacity of water (glazed and unglazed) collectors only. Data from IEA SHC. Total capacity rankings are estimated to remain unchanged for year-end 2015. 6 Not including heat pumps. Note: Most rankings are based on absolute amounts of investment, power generation capacity or output, or biofuels production; if done on a per capita, national GDP or other basis, the rankings would be different for many categories (as seen with per capita rankings for renewable power, solar PV, wind power and solar water collector capacity). RENEWABLES 2016 · GLOBAL STATUS REPORT · KEY FINDINGS 13

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